Indigenous resource conservation in New Zealand and the United States :
How can Māqori efforts to conserve toheroa (a surf clam) and Native American efforts to conserve Eastern Oysters inform mainstream perspectives and practices?
New Zealand and the United States may be geographically distant, but they still share similarities in how they incorporate indigenous knowledge and culture into natural resource management.
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Toheroa (Paphies ventricosa) are surf clams of cultural and economic importance to Māori people particularly in Northland, New Zealand, and eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are oysters of the same relevance to Native American people around the Chesapeake Bay, especially the Nansemond tribe. Both typify the significance and importance of indigenous practices in conservation. Indigenous groups in both countries share similarities in their traditions and culture, their relationship with the environment, and the conservation practices that demonstrate their harmony with the land. However, indigenous knowledge and efforts of indigenous groups are often met with opposition from mainstream and western knowledge, so both groups and their conservation practices must be explored within political and societal constraints.